The rest is history.

Recorded history.

It is about who was recorded history? Who was the power and the glory of the age? Not who is the new super power of the present. You have to look back instead of forward. It is better to say who was recorded history at the time? Did Israel give us YHWH or did YHWH give us Israel? Is it the history of writing or the writing of history?

Eternity.

There is no eternity without recorded history, that is that cavemen and prehistoric man (excepting cave art) did not attain eternity because they left no buildings, writing or literature behind. We do not know their names or deeds, so they are not eternal, hence hallowed be your name. However, thanks to themselves and archaeology, it was firstly the Egyptians who invented recorded history and architecture and who put thousands of years of time, energy and devotion into eternity and the afterlife through religion, writing, mummification and tombs etc, that accomplished this. Recorded history is eternity.

Inextricable link.

There is an inextricable link between Jesus Christ and the Buddha and recorded history. An absolute prerequisite for a nation or civilisation to gloriously attain the Christ or the Buddha is that it must have or be recorded history. The Christ and the Buddha come at the earliest possible moment in ‘history.’ Both Christ and the Buddha would never come unless recorded history was firmly in place in that country or civilisation, as they would never be famous and their teaching would never be remembered. That is why Jesus Christ came an Israelite, because they invented recorded history, writing and the Bible. It is no coincidence that Jesus Christ, the Son of YHWH came an Israelite. Israel is the site of the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world, that being Jericho.

The city of Jericho is thought to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world. Like Homer’s Troy, Jericho inevitably attracted the interest of nineteenth century archaeologists, in search of evidence for walls supposedly destroyed by Joshua’s invading Israelite army.

Dating the beginning of the Neolithic occupation is problematic, but the oldest radiocarbon date, for Sample P-378, suggests that the site [Jericho] was in use by 9250 BC (7825 radiocarbon year BC).

(Humans: from the beginning, by Christopher Seddon, page 244).

Why did Jesus Christ come at such an ancient site? Why not Greece or Rome? It is because the Nile Valley and Levant are the oldest parts of the world historically and they are the kingdom of YHWH and Jesus Christ knew this. Why did Jesus Christ or the Buddha not come at a different time, say in the Palaeolithic period? It is not evolutionary, it is because it would have been useless as they would never have been famous or remembered.

Sub-Saharan Africa.

Why has there been no Jesus Christ or Buddha in sub-Saharan Africa? It is nothing to do with race, it is because there has never been recorded history in sub-Saharan Africa.

“The African, however, laments his ignorance of the art of writing, with more ostentation than sincerity; for he boasts at the same time that his gods like to be served with vigor and activity in the field, rather than by prayer and actions such as we term moral…”

(Journal of a residence in Ashantee, comprising notes and researches relative to the Gold Coast, and the interior of Western Africa, chiefly collected from Arabic mss. By Joseph Dupuis, c. 1820, page 247).

200 years ago sub-Saharan Africa had no writing or recorded history, in fact illiteracy is still a problem there today. If sub-Saharan Africa wanted to attain Jesus Christ or the Buddha they would have to be 100% independent.

We can give you almost the time of day when recorded history began on the various coasts of sub-Saharan Africa. For example the following is my review of a reading of The Voyages of Cadamosto and Other Documents on Western Africa in the Second Half of the Fifteenth Century, edited by Gerald Roe Crone.

The introduction of Cadamosto’s account relates of the genius of the Portuguese (15th century) maritime exploration and their discoveries in West Africa, that circumvented the Moorish monopoly of trans-Saharan trade in gold, ivory and slaves, which Europeans had known about for centuries. Using caravels which were lightweight and specifically designed for the purpose, they found a shortcut around the Sahara to the source of the gold, ivory and slaves, i.e: round the Sahara and the Western coast of Africa to the Gulf of Guinea.

The account relates of the voyages of Cadamosto and Pero de Sinatra. Cadamosto claims to have discovered the Cape Verde Islands and gets as far along the coast of West Africa as Rio Grande, (in modern day ‘Guinea-Bissau’). Pero de Sinatra explores the coast as far as Cape Mesurado (in modern day Liberia), both of these are excellent accounts of these important discoveries.

The other documents of Cadamosto’s account relate of certain other events connected with the interior of Western Africa and the rivers Senegal and Gambia. The most important documents, however, relate of the discoveries of the ‘Gold Coast’, ‘Benin’, Principe, St. Thome, Fernando Po, and the ‘Congo’, down to Cape Saint Catherine. (Note: these are names of modern day countries, however, they were not called as such at that time, all that the Portuguese named were just capes and rivers of the coast). This was the first time Europeans crossed the equator. The ‘Gold Coast’ was discovered in January 1471 by Pêro de Escobar and João de Santarém. It was due to a contract that the King of Portugal made with Fernão Gomes in 1469, by which Gomes got the monopoly of trade in West Africa for 5 years, on condition that he explored 100 leagues of new coastline beyond Sierra Leone each year. Subsequently the ‘Gold Coast’ and those other discoveries mentioned above were made. There is also an important account of how St George da Mina (Elmina) was built in 1482, with a fleet of 10 caravels carrying hewed stone and 600 men. The document relates of how Azambuja, the Captain-Major of the fleet, met with Casamansa, the king of the country around the proposed site of the fort, and of the negotiations between them. Hence this is how recorded history began for the Gold Coast (Ghana) and the rest of sub-Saharan Africa.

The next forward step in the Portuguese advance was initiated when the King in 1469 leased the monopoly of trade on the West African coast to Fernão Gomes for five years, on condition that he secured the exploration of one hundred leagues of new coastline beyond Sierra Leone each year…

The immediate result of this contract was the voyage of João de Santarém and Pêro de Escobar in 1471 along the Gold Coast to the point near which the fortress of El Mina was afterwards built…

(The Voyages of Cadamosto and Other Documents on Western Africa in the Second Half of the Fifteenth Century, page xxvii).

Further South Bartolomeu Dias discovered and rounded the Cape of Good Hope in what is now South Africa in May 1488.

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Bartolomeu Dias discovered the Cape of Good Hope in May 1488.

This ‘history’ demonstrates why sub-Saharan Africa has not yet attained Jesus Christ or the Buddha.

Symbolism.

Art, literature and science are all consequences of a behavioural package anthropologists refer to as ‘modern human behaviour.’ These things would not be possible without our ability to use symbols to convey information. Symbols can take the form of sounds, images or objects. They may refer directly to an object or idea, for example a representational image; they may be totally abstract, such as spoken or written words. Thus for example a drawing of a cat, the sound ‘cat’ or the written letters ‘c-a-t’ may all be used to refer to a cat.

Syntactic language is a system of communication that enables an effectively infinite range of meanings to be conveyed, but it is only one component of our ability to use symbols – an ability we do not share with our fellow apes. We use symbols all the time – whenever we read a newspaper, check the time, consult a map or admire a painting or sculpture. All of these activities involve symbolic behaviour: human society could not function without it.

(Humans: from the beginning, by Christopher Seddon, page 19).

Phonetics.

Phonetics, alphabets, writing and speech are unfundamental. Writing and alphabets are a descendant of primitive art and symbolism.

Göbekli Tepe is thought to be the world’s oldest temple.

If the Göbekli Tepe symbols were indeed pictograms, then the origins of writing may extend back into the early Neolithic, thousands of years before the appearance of writing systems such as cuneiform and hieroglyphic script.

(Humans: from the beginning, by Christopher Seddon, page 248).

Prehistoric man could not read or write but they could still speak.

There is no evidence in Homo habilis for the range of complex behaviours associated with modern humans, although it has been suggested that the species might have employed some form of language.

(Humans: from the beginning, by Christopher Seddon, page 55).

Primitive art and symbolism.
Primitive art and symbolism.

Complete writing (systemic phoneticism).

The seeds of Mesopotamian writing or recorded history began in Sumer with ‘accounting tokens’ and then the invention of ‘systemic phoneticism’. 

“Seeds of Mesopotamian writing.” Mesopotamian Accounting Tokens.

Yet Sumer’s idea of systemic phoneticism already at its inception, evidently spread far beyond the Tigris and Euphrates, both east to the Indus and west to the Nile Valley, where the idea took root among other rising civilisations. Different languages and different social needs now demanded new solutions of there own.

Most scholars still prefer to believe that writing originated independently in many regions of the world as an expression of a society’s having attained an ‘advanced’ level of civilisation. However, writing is not an automatic reward of social sophistication. Writing must be elaborated, and this entails a protracted process determined by evolving social needs. Though there are other possible interpretations, the cumulative weight of evidence urges the consideration that the idea of complete writing may have emerged only once in humankind’s history. Drawing from a standardized repertoire of pictograms and symbols – the distillation of a long development from notches to tablets  – the Sumerians of Mesopotamia elaborated what has since become humankind’s most versatile tool. All other writing systems and scripts are, then perhaps derivatives of this one original idea – systemic phoneticism – that emerged between 6000 and 5700 years ago in Mesopotamia.

(A History of Writing, Steven Roger Fischer, page 32-33).

Alphabets and recorded history.

The history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt. By 2700 BCE Egyptian writing had a set of some 22 hieroglyphs. However, although seemingly alphabetic in nature, the original Egyptian uniliterals were not a system and were never used by themselves to encode Egyptian speech.

Egyptian hieroglyphs.
Egyptian hieroglyphs.

In the Middle Bronze Age an apparently “alphabetic” system known as the Proto-Sinaitic script is thought by some to have been developed in central Egypt around 1700 BCE for or by Semitic workers, and based on letter appearances and names, it is believed to be based on Egyptian hieroglyphs.

Proto-Sinaitic/proto-Canaanite script.
Proto-Sinaitic/proto-Canaanite script.

This script eventually developed into the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, which in turn was refined into the Phoenician alphabet. Phoenician was the first major phonemic script. In contrast to two other widely used writing systems at the time, Cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphs, it contained only about two dozen distinct letters, making it a script simple enough for common traders to learn. Another advantage of Phoenician was that it could be used to write down many different languages, since it recorded words phonemically.

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Phoenician alphabet.

The script was spread by the Phoenicians, whose Thalassocracy allowed the script to be spread across the Mediterranean. In Greece, the script was modified to add the vowels, giving rise to the first true alphabet. The Greeks took letters which did not represent sounds that existed in Greek, and changed them to represent the vowels. This marks the creation of a “true” alphabet, with both vowels and consonants as explicit symbols in a single script. In its early years, there were many variants of the Greek alphabet, a situation which caused many different alphabets to evolve from it.

Greek alphabet.
Greek alphabet.

The Cumae form of the Greek alphabet was carried over by Greek colonists from Euboea to the Italian peninsula, where it gave rise to a variety of alphabets used to inscribe the Italic languages. One of these became the Latin alphabet, which was spread across Europe as the Romans expanded their empire. Even after the fall of the Roman state, the alphabet survived in intellectual and religious works. It eventually became used for the descendant languages of Latin (the Romance languages) and then for the other languages of Europe.

by Jan van der Crabben, published on 28 April 2011.

https://www.ancient.eu/amp/1-73/

Latin alphabet.
Latin alphabet.

The Romans took the Latin alphabet and recorded history to Western Europe, places like Britannia, Gaul and Spain. Then in turn Western Europe spread the Latin alphabet and recorded history to the remaining pre-literate regions of the Earth including the Americas, Africa and Australia. Finally, through computers and digitalisation America reinvented the very meaning of scripts, notepads and tablets etc, making recorded history eternal.

Evolution of the English alphabet.
Evolution of the English alphabet.

The rest is history.

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